Friday, July 3, 2015

Historically accurate? Films with Daniel Day Lewis

Daniel Day Lewis portray historical figures very well. Whether it is as Abraham Lincoln demanding and commanding his cabinet members to obtain votes for the for the 13th Amendment to pass, or as a brutal and vicious gang leader in the movie Gangs of New York his specialty seems to be historic dramas.

Lewis is classified as such because he immerses himself into the role. He takes on the persona of the person he is portraying by studying who the person was and what they were about.

In both Lincoln and Gangs of New York Lewis is a leader. Whether he is leading a country through the Civil War or a rival gang on the streets of New York he takes on the burden of leadership with style and grace. In Gangs of New York he teaches young Vallon how to injure and kill a man with a knife as the weapon of choice by using a pig carcass. In the film Lincoln he shows a commanding presence when he orders his cabinet members to procure the votes so the proposed amendment will pass. In either role there is no doubt he is a leader. He does not pull any punches and is not elusive about his leadership style in either film.

While Daniel Day Lewis has been several films his role as leader in historic dramas seem to be his best fit because he is such a natural at it.





Daniel Day Lewis has acted in both true historical dramas such as Lincoln and not so true historic dramas such as Gangs of New York.

Previous articles in series:
Historically accurate? Gladiator.
Historically accurate? To Kill a Mockingbird
Historically accurate? Lincoln

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: The Story of David Rorer

The Story of David Rorer

      David Rorer was Ralph Montgomery's attorney who successfully argued the very first Iowa Territorial Supreme Court case in 1839.

       David's life as a pioneer, lawyer, and a former slave owner conflicted with his conscience ahead of the Civil War. He received legal training in Virginia and later practiced in Arkansas before he moved to Iowa.

       His daughter Delia wrote: "Still under 30 years of age, he was rapidly making a name for himself in the South, but he found himself entirely out of sympathy with the people over the slavery issue." 

      He credited a conversation with a member of Congress for his decision to leave. David made a prediction 20 years before the Civil War that the South would leave the Union. According to Delia "He went home and talked the matter over with his wife. He would throw in with the free North and the Union." He called his servants together, told them they are free and invited them to come with his family to the north where they would be free.

     Delia wrote: "But one volunteered to go. She was the children's nurse, 'Nin,' and she came with the Rorer family to Burlington."

      Iowa was still a decade away from statehood and Burlington not yet a town when Rorer and his family arrived in the territory in 1836. In 1837 Burlington became the capitol of the Territory of Wisconsin and in 1838 the capitol of the Iowa Territory. David constructed the first brick building in Iowa, helped craft Burlington's city government, draft the town ordinances, and helped lay out the city streets.

      Rorer's legal career ended almost before it began. He ran, unsuccessfully, for the U. S. Congress in 1838. His opponent, Peter Engle, was elected over him. One of Engle's backers, Cyrus Jacobs, took offense at Rorer's comments about Engle. He met Rorer on the street after the election, produced a pistol and hit Rorer in the head with a cane. According to the Biographical Dictionary of Iowa: "Rorer reeled and fired his own pistol, with fatal results." The shooting was ruled self defense.

     With the success of the 1839 Iowa Territorial Supreme Court decision behind him Rorer represented another client in 1850 on the opposite of the slavery issue. Ruel Daggs was a Missouri slave owner who, with the help of David Rorer sued members of the Quaker community of Salem, Iowa in federal court of harboring nine of Daggs' slaves, including a pregnant woman. According to court documents Daggs offered a reward for the capture and return of his property. Slave catchers Samuel Slaughter, James McClure, Henry Brown and Thomas Cook went after and found the runaways hiding in the bushes near Salem, Iowa.

     The people of Salem discovered what was happening and a crowd of 100 people gathered to protect the slaves before the men could capture them. A local, Moses Baldwin threatened: "he would wade up to his knees in Missouri blood" before surrendering the men, women and children." David Rorer later argued: "It was a riotous assemblage. It was a conspiracy to injure the plaintiff, and all who were present were guilty."

      Local magistrate Nelson Gibbs ruled he had no jurisdiction and refused to hold any of the slaves. According to the later law suit four of the nine slaves were returned to Daggs, but how is not explained. Daggs, not satisfied with this, sued 19 of the Quakers for $10,000, claiming the financial damage for the loss of the loss of the other five slaves.

     Though Rorer was a former slave owner and Ralph Montgomery's champion he represented Daggs with zeal and passion. In his closing argument he did express concern for people in bondage: "I do not complain of it -- I, too, have feelings of sympathy -- nor do I complain of the offices of humanity which such feelings may have dictated, but our sympathy should manumit our own, and not other people's slaves." He called on jurors to recognize the U.S. Constitution, which Iowa agreed to follow by becoming a state, and did not at that time prohibit slavery. He stated: "Shall we now repudiate the contract we have made? Shall we be the first to violate it ... when we have ourselves sanctioned the institution of slavery, by entering, with full knowledge, into a contract of which it forms part?"

     Daggs was awarded a hefty sum of $2,900 against five of the defendants. But according to the Iowa Law Review, he never collected. The law review also noted:  "After five years of litigation, Daggs remained uncompensated for the loss of his slaves. In a final blow, the judge ordered Daggs to pay $33.56 in court costs."

      In June 1855, Rorer defended a person detained and presumed by a man hunter to be a fugitive slave out of Missouri. The townspeople of Burlington demanded the slave catcher prove "Dick" was the fugitive they sought. The issue went before Judge George Frazee but ended quickly when the slave owner's son could not identify "Dick."

     David Rorer left a historic mark on the state of Iowa. He appeared 163 times before the Iowa Territorial and State Supreme Court, he wrote several legal reference books and is credited with branding Iowans as Hawkeyes, a nickname he favored. According to the Biographical Dictionary of Iowa: "the attorney wrote several letters to Iowa newspapers. He signed each, "A Wolverine among the Hawkeyes." Rorer also complimented Iowans as "hospitable Hawkeyes" and praised "the enterprise and industry of the Hawkeye farmer."

     Six years later Abraham Lincoln was president and the north and south were beginning their bitter struggle. During the Civil War Rorer's true views on slavery came to light when he switched from Democrat to Republican and advocated for emancipation. 

     David Rorer died in 1884 at the age of 78.

      In 1910 an edition of the Morning Sun News stated: "As these letters contained many criticisms of prominent men, including public officers of the territory, they created much interest and the name 'Hawkeye' was ever after adopted to designate the people of Iowa."

      Despite the fact David Rorer was a lave owner himself and represented slave owners during his career as an attorney were it not for his defense of Ralph Montgomery and others, and were it not for Rorer advocating for emancipation the freedom and civil rights in the then Iowa territory and now state of Iowa would not have progressed as they have.
Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2007
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2009
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Resolving Conflicts/The Work Continues
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Two Controversial Decisions, Thesis, Brief History of the Iowa Territory, and the Story of Ralph Montgomery

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Two Controversial Decisions, Thesis, Brief History of the Iowa Territory, and the Story of Ralph Montgomery

Thesis       

      The Iowa Supreme Court has been making controversial decisions since its beginning in 1839. One of the most recent decision was in 2009 on same sex marriage in Iowa. The supreme court ruled it is allowed in the state of Iowa based on their interpretation of the Iowa Constitution. Since then people have been stating the Iowa Supreme Court has not made a decision like that and it was the first time they had done so. People have also accused the Iowa Supreme Court of "legislating from the bench" and when it comes to creating laws or changing existing laws it falls on the state legislative branch to do so. While the job of creating new laws or changing existing laws does fall on the elected law makers in Iowa the Iowa Supreme Court did not legislate from the bench as they were accused of doing. That statement and the the statement about people saying they had never made a ruling such as the one in 2009 is incorrect. There have been several controversial decisions made by the Iowa Supreme Court since the very first in 1839, which was before Iowa was a state.

Brief History of the Iowa Territory

       Iowa was originally part of the Missouri Territory in 1812. In 1834 it became part of the Michigan Territory until  Michigan became a state in 1836 when Iowa was made part of the Wisconsin Territory. In  1838 when Iowa became its own territory with the territorial capitol and supreme court in Burlington, Iowa. There were three supreme court justices originally, Chief Justice Charles Mason, associate justices Joseph Williams and Thomas Wilson. The very first case they heard was the "Matter of Ralph, (a colored man)".

Story of Ralph Montgomery

      Rafe Nelson was born into slavery in about 1795. His name was changed to Ralph Montgomery, for his slave master, early on in Virginia. It was common practice and tradition for slaves to have their names changed by their owners/masters. He was in his 20's when he was taken to Kentucky by his owner and sold to his owners brother, William Montgomery. In about 1830 Ralph was then sold to William's son, Jordan Montgomery who took Ralph and moved to Palmyra, Missouri. After about two years of servitude Ralph met Ellis Schofield, who had but just returned from a trip to the lead regions of the upper Mississippi River Valley. Ellis told Ralph of the fortune that could be made working in the lead mines. This inspired Ralph to procure his freedom from Jordan Montgomery. In 1834 he worked out an agreement with his owner for $550 and Ralph moved to Dubuque, Iowa and began working in the lead mines.

      After about 5 years Ralph had not been able to purchase his freedom for the agreed upon amount he made with Jordan Montgomery. Ralph was barely able to support himself let alone pay for his freedom. Around this same time Jordan was also experiencing financial difficulties as he had a $4,000 bank loan to repay. The contract Ralph made with Jordan was no secret. Two Virginians heard of his predicament and offered to return Ralph for $100. Jordan agreed not wanting to write Ralph off as a bad debt. The two Virginians swore an affidavit in front of a justice of the peace that Ralph was a fugitive, and the court official ordered the local sheriff to assist Montgomery's men. They found Ralph at his claim and arrested him.

      A farmer and business man, Alexander Butterworth was plowing his field nearby and witnessed the kidnapping. He quickly went to associate judge Thomas Wilson in Dubuque who drafted a writ of habeas corpus preventing Ralph from being taken away. Alexander and an officer of the law made it just in time to provide the writ as the Virginians were getting ready to board a boat with Ralph.

      The case was sent to Burlington to be heard before the Iowa Territorial Supreme Court.

      The writ was only a temporary injunction preventing Ralph from being relocated to Missouri as Jordan Montgomery and his attorney's challenged the document under the Missouri Compromise Act of 1820. They argued when Ralph relocated slavery was not specifically prohibited in the territory at the time. When Ralph failed to fulfill his contract he became a fugitive slave.

    David Rorer, a Virginia native and former slave owner in Arkansas was Ralph's attorney. He argued Ralph was neither slave nor fugitive because he entered a contract that presupposes a state of freedom and Ralph became a free man when, by consent of his master, moved to Iowa. Rorer also cited  Chapter 23 of the Book of Deuteronomy in the Bible, which says, in part: "Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant which is escaped from his master unto thee: He shall dwell with thee, even among you."

      The justices ruled Ralph shall pay Montgomery with a stipulation that he should repay the debt but even if he does not he can be sent back into slavery. Chief Justice Charles Mason wrote: "It is a debt which he ought to pay, but for the non-payment of which no man in this territory can be reduced to slavery", and he concluded: "should be discharged from all custody and constraint, and be permitted to go free while he remains under the protection of our laws." The ruling was delivered on Independence Day, July 4, 1839.

      The next year Ralph showed in Associate Justice Wilson's garden working and explained: "I ain't paying you for what you done for me. But I want to work for you one day every spring to show you that I never forget."

       Ralph stayed in Dubuque for the rest of his natural life and continued to mine lead. He was credited with several profitable loads. He became a familiar figure around town often appearing dressed in a suit ready for business. Ralph eventually fell on hard times. There are contradictory reports he was either swindled or gambled his money away. The Dubuque Times stated: "His latter years were passed in comparative poverty," and he lived in the county poor house. Ralph was laid to rest in an unmarked plot in Linwood Cemetery, buried next to dozens of others in a mass grave.

       The cemetery manager Kandi Perry stated: "We know he's buried here because his name is on a list." A visitor to the cemetery in 2014 told Perry: "Ralph was responsible for me having my freedom," here's $20. In the spring, plant some flowers for him."

       Ralph's story continues and is told with a permanent reminder which stands outside the Judicial Branch on the Iowa State Capitol Grounds in Des Moines. In 2009 a sculpture, "Shattering Silence", designed by artist James Ellwanger, was installed on the 170 years anniversary of the 1839 decision made by the Iowa Supreme Court. The artwork stands 30 feet tall and features a ring made of limestone quarried in Dubuque.

       This was the first of many such decisions made by the Iowa Supreme Court.

Temporary References

Court of Iowa, Henry K. Peterson, Volume 34 | Number 4 (Spring 1958) pps. 304-307

Encyclopedia Dubuque, MONTGOMERY, Ralph

Iowa Pathways, Ralph Montgomery

The Annals of Iowa, Iowa's Supreme Court, Volume 26 | Number 1 (Summer 1944) pps. 3-22

THE BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF IOWA, Rorer, David, University of Iowa Press Digital Editions

Iowa Pathways, The Path to Statehood

Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2007
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2009
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Resolving Conflicts/The Work Continues

Saturday, June 27, 2015

Historically accurate? Lincoln

In the 2012 movie, Lincoln, there are many scenes where sound helps emphasize the meaning and nature of the scene. There is the dialogue which is very important in a historical drama such as this. Much of the dialogue is without music or other sound effects heard as part of the scene because of the importance of this film.

One scene that really stands out and brings dialogue together with music is where the Speaker of the House reads the results of the vote on the 13th Amendment. First all you hear is his voice through the beginning of the scene. All eyes are on him in the house chamber as he speaks. The scene cuts to President Lincoln pacing about in his study in the White House. Then the sound of bells chiming are heard, right after that the sounds loud cheering are heard and the scene changes to the inside of the house chamber where most of the delegates are cheering. Then all of a sudden they start singing the song, "Battle Cry of Freedom".

Thaddeus Stevens asks for the original copy of the bill, folds it with a creased and walks out of the capitol building. Outside the song "Battle Cry of Freedom" and cheering is still heard, even as Thaddeus walks home. As he opens his door and enters the song and cheering are still heard in the back ground.

The impact of this song had on the scene and the movie are very important as the song is about freedom and is used in the scene of the movie where all slaves were officially declared free by the law makers of the United States. There is no doubt as to the genre of this film. It is certainly a historical drama. The effect of the cheering and the song "Battle Cry of Freedom may be that it makes someone feel swelled up with pride and give them a sense of patriotic euphoria. It was a happy event in united States history. Had the song not been used and no other patriotic song put in its place the scene may have been largely forgotten and the emphasis of the meaning behind the song along with where and how it is used in the film would have been lost and not as strong.



This film is historically accurate through most of the movie. There are a few discrepancies and embellishments included for more dramatic effect. But overall this was an actual event that occurred in United States history.

Goodykoontz, B., & Jacobs, C. P. (2014). Film: From watching to seeing (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc

Previous articles in series:
Historically accurate? Gladiator.
Historically accurate? To Kill a Mockingbird

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Resolving Conflicts/The Work Continues

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.





Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2007
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2009

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2009

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.



Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2007

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 2007

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.



Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1990

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.




Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1980

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.



Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979

Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1979

On temporary display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines is the Working Toward Equality exhibit.




Previous articles in the series:
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, History and Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1619
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1846
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1861
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1863
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1864
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1865 to 1990
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990's
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 1990 to Present
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Artifacts, Book and CD
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2002
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Celebrations and Photos
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2003 to 2004
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2009 to 2010
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, 2012 to 2015
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Juneteenth, Flags
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Introduction
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, Iowa Civil Rights Timeline
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1839
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1868
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1869
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1873
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1884
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1925
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1905 to 1940
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1930
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1948
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1949
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1965
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1967
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1968
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1970
Freedom and Civil Rights in Iowa: Working Toward Equality, 1972